原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.eqqk.net 翻譯:土撥鼠之日 轉載請注明出處
論壇地址:http://www.eqqk.net/bbs/thread-484787-1-1.html



The world is literally a greener place than it was 20 years ago, and the data from NASA satellites has revealed a counterintuitive source for much of this new foliage: China and India.

與20年前相比,這個世界確實是一個更加綠色的地方,來自美國宇航局衛星的數據揭示了這么一個違反直覺的源頭:中國和印度。

This surprising new study shows that the two emerging countries with the world’s biggest populations are leading the improvement in greening on land. The effect stems mainly from ambitious tree planting programs in China and intensive agriculture in both countries. In 2017 alone, India broke its own world record for the most trees planted after volunteers gathered to plant 66 million saplings in just 12 hours.

這一令人驚訝的新研究表明,世界上人口最多的兩個新興國家在改善土地綠化方面處于領先地位。這種效應主要源于中國雄心勃勃的植樹計劃和兩國的集約化農業。僅在2017年,印度就打破了自己種植樹木最多的世界紀錄,志愿者們聚集在一起,在短短12小時內種植了6600萬棵樹苗。

The greening phenomenon was first detected by researchers using satellite data in the mid-1990s, but they did not know whether human activity was one of its chief, direct causes.

上世紀90年代中期,研究人員首次利用衛星數據發現了這種綠化現象,但他們不知道人類活動是否是其主要直接原因之一。



An advantage of the MODIS satellite sensor is the intensive coverage it provides, both in space and time: MODIS has captured as many as four shots of every place on Earth, every day for the last 20 years.

MODIS衛星傳感器的一個優勢是它在空間和時間上提供了密集的覆蓋:在過去20年里,MODIS每天拍攝了地球上每個地方多達四張的照片。

“This long-term data lets us dig deeper,” said Rama Nemani, a research scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center and a co-author of the new work. “When the greening of the Earth was first observed, we thought it was due to a warmer, wetter climate and fertilization from the added carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, leading to more leaf growth in northern forests, for instance. Now, with the MODIS data that lets us understand the phenomenon at really small scales, we see that humans are also contributing.”

“這些長期數據讓我們可以更深入地挖掘,”NASA艾姆斯研究中心(Ames research Center)的研究科學家、這項新研究的合著者拉馬·內馬尼說。“當我們第一次觀察到地球變綠時,我們認為這是由于氣候變暖、變濕,以及大氣中二氧化碳的增加,例如,導致北方森林中更多的葉子生長,從而產生了肥料。現在,通過MODIS的數據,我們可以在非常小的范圍內理解這種現象,我們發現人類也在做出貢獻。”

China’s outsized contribution to the global greening trend comes in large part (42%) from programs to conserve and expand forests. These were developed in an effort to reduce the effects of soil erosion, air pollution and climate change. Another 32% there – and 82% of the greening seen in India – comes from intensive cultivation of food crops.

中國對全球綠化趨勢的巨大貢獻(42%)在很大程度上來自于保護和擴大森林的計劃。這些措施是為了減少土壤侵蝕、空氣污染和氣候變化的影響而制定的。在印度,32%的綠化來自于糧食作物的集約種植。

The land area used to grow crops – more than 770,000 square miles – is comparable in China and India and it has not changed much since the early 2000s; yet these regions have greatly increased both their annual total green leaf area and their food production. This was achieved through multiple cropping practices, where a field is replanted to produce another harvest several times a year. Production of grains, vegetables, fruits, and more have increased by about 35-40% since 2000 to feed their large populations.

用于種植農作物的土地面積——超過77萬平方英里——中國和印度相當,自本世紀初以來變化不大;然而,這些地區的年總綠葉面積和糧食產量都大大增加了。這是通過復種實現的,在復種的過程中,一塊土地每年會被重新種植幾次,以便再次收獲。自2000年以來,谷物、蔬菜、水果等的產量增加了35-40%,以養活其龐大的人口。



“Once people realize there’s a problem, they tend to fix it,” he said. “In the 70s and 80s in India and China, the situation around vegetation loss wasn’t good; in the 90s, people realized it; and today things have improved. Humans are incredibly resilient. That’s what we see in the satellite data.”

“一旦人們意識到有問題,他們往往會去解決它,”他說。“在70年代和80年代,印度和中國的植被損失情況并不好;在90年代,人們意識到了這一點;今天情況有所改善。人類具有難以置信的適應力。這就是我們從衛星數據中看到的。”