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學習中文最好的方法是什么?
2019-06-05 水滴的思緒 6762 0 0  


What is the best way to learn Chinese?

學習中文最好的方法是什么?



評論:

Daniel Tedesco, Recent Fulbrighter in China
When I started learning Chinese, I took a bunch of classes. I took tests, made flash cards, memorized lists of vocab words, wrote thousands of characters. After a year, I realized how slowly I was learning and decided to go my own way. I started using some of the techniques below, but didn't realize the best ways to learn until I was already pretty fluent.

當我開始學中文的時候,我上了很多課,參加了考試,制作了卡片,背誦了單詞表,寫了成千上萬個漢字。但一年后,我意識到自己學得太慢了,于是我決定尋找自己的學習方法。我開始使用下面的一些技巧,但直到我中文已相當流利時才找到了最好的學習方法。

If I had to start over, this is how I would do it:

如果我可以重新開始,我會這樣學習中文:

I wouldn't spend a minute in formal classes. Don't pay thousands of dollars to sit silently in a room with 30 other people and listen to a teacher for six hours a day. If you're going to spend that time learning Chinese, then spend it actively.

我不會再花一分鐘時間在正式的課堂上。你沒有必要花費幾千美元,安靜地和其他30個人坐在一個教室里,每天聽老師講6個小時的課。如果你想每天花6個小時的時間在教室里上課,你就應該積極主動地利用時間。
From the beginning, I would find 2-3 Chinese students to tutor me every day each day (probably still less expensive than enrolling in a school). I would spend the entire six hours reading dialogues *aloud* from Chinese language textbooks. If I got caught up on a word or sentence, I would ask the tutor to explain and then move on. This teaches you to read, speak, and listen all at once.

一開始,我每天會找2-3個中國學生來輔導我(這可能比上學還便宜)。我會花整整六個小時來朗讀中文課本上的對話。如果我遇到了一個不懂的單詞或句子,我會向老師請教,然后繼續朗讀。這可以同時教會你讀、說和聽。

Skip everything else in the book. No fill-in-the-blanks. No 聽寫. No lists of vocabulary words. No flash cards. If a word is important, you'll see it again. Most importantly, with this method, every time you see a word will be in context of actual usage and *you* will be using it.

跳過書中的其他內容,不要做填空題,不要聽寫,不要背詞匯表,也不要用抽認卡。如果一個單詞很重要,你會再次看到它的。最重要的是,通過這種方法,每當你看到一個單詞時,你都能在上下文中理解它的實際用法,通過這種方式,你可以掌握這個單詞的實際用法。

When you get through all the dialogues in a book, get a new book. Get a slightly harder one.

當你閱讀完一本書中的所有對話時,再新買一本稍微難一點的書。

In your down time, watch TV and use WeChat (China's major messaging app).

在你的休息時間里,可以看看電視,多多使用微信(中國主要的通信app)。

You probably have Chinese friends. Add them on WeChat. They definitely use WeChat. Talk to them all the time. They're probably interested in learning about where you come from and your perspective on the world. Tell them. Force yourself to type in Chinese. It will be incredibly slow at first, and you might need to look up every other word. That's fine. You'll improve quickly, because your brain will want to make communication easier for you. (This assumes you don't need to learn how to *handwrite* Chinese characters. Realistically, unless you're a tattoo artist, you will probably never need to.)

你很可能有中國朋友,他們肯定會用微信,所以加上他們的微信,一直和他們交談。他們可能有興趣了解你來自哪里以及你對世界的看法,告訴他們。強迫自己用中文打字。開始的時候會非常慢,你可能需要每隔一個詞就查一次,這沒關系,因為你的大腦想讓你的交流更容易,所以你會進步的很快。(這里假設你不需要學習如何“手寫”漢字。實際上,除非你是紋身師,否則你可能永遠都不需要。)

Start with children's TV shows online. But spend the entire time listening and reading the subtitles (Chinese TV shows almost always have subtitles). I suggest 喜羊羊與灰太狼. When you get good enough, stop watching cartoons. Watch the news and Chinese movies. Keep reading the subtitles, though.

從網上的兒童電視節目開始。你要把所有的時間都花在聽和閱讀字幕上(中國的電視節目幾乎都有字幕)。我建議看《喜羊羊與灰太狼》。當你水平足夠高的時候,就不要再看卡通片了,嘗試看一些新聞和中國電影。當然了,還是要繼續閱讀字幕。

It will be hard. You will think there is no light at the end of the tunnel. There will be weeks when you wish you never started learning Chinese. But, if you do these things every day (no cheating), you will become fluent in 6 months or less.

這將會很艱難,你會認為隧道的盡頭沒有光。有些時候,你會希望自己從來沒有開始學中文。但是,如果你每天都堅持做這些事情(不作弊),你的中文將在6個月甚至更短的時間內變得流利。

Kevin Dewalt, Startup founder (5), Investor (25+), and mentor (a lot). Now working on SaaS.
Short Answer: Find a Westerners in a similar life situation as yours who learned Chinese to the level of proficiency you desire and ask their advice.  Most likely you'll discover that they best (and perhaps only) way to learn a language is to use it.

簡短的答案:找一個和你生活處境相似、并且他的漢語水平已經達到你理想狀態水平的西方人,然后向他請教。很可能你會發現他們學習一門語言的最好(也許也是唯一)方法就是使用它。

Long Answer…
I asked this Quora question when I arrived in China and was struggling to learn Chinese.  I've recently turned the corner and can now have day-to-day life conversations with Chinese people.  Although I'm nowhere near the level of proficiency I desire, I have found a process that is working for me and feel bit more qualified to answer my own question.

長答案......
當我剛到中國,還在努力學習中文的時候,我也問了Quora上的這個問題。最近我已經度過了難關,并且可以和中國人進行日常生活對話了。雖然我還遠沒有達到自己期望的熟練程度,但我已經找到了一個適合自己的方法,所以我覺得自己更有資格回答自己的問題。

I moved to China in the Spring of 2012.  It was a hard landing for me, much harder than I expected.  In America I spent about 6 months studying part time with software products like Memrise, Chinesepod, and Anki flashcards as well periodic lessons with 1-1 tutors.  I continued this practice in China, and by May of 2012 I was intensely frustrated with my progress.  Chinese people had a hard time understanding even basic words I was saying and I understand almost nothing of what I heard.  Fortunately my hours using Memrise had given me a good grasp of pinyin and knowledge of about 1,000 characters, so at least I could use SMS to communicate as a last resort.  But overall I realized that if I didn't find a better approach to start rapidly improving I was on the road to becoming another Westerner who tried to learn and gave up.

2012年的春天,我搬到了中國。對我來說,這次硬著陸比我想象的困難得多。在美國,我花了大約6個月的空閑時間,利用Memrise、Chinesepod、Anki等軟件進行學習,并參加了一對一的導師定期授課。到了中國,我繼續這樣的學習方式,但是到了2012年5月,我對自己的進步感到非常沮喪。中國人連我說的基本詞匯都很難聽懂,我也幾乎聽不懂我聽到的東西。幸運的是,我在Memrise上花費的時間讓我很好地掌握了拼音和大約1000個漢字,所以至少我可以將短信作為最后的交流手段。但總的來說,我意識到,如果我不能找到一個更好的方法快速提高我的中文,我就會成為另一個試圖學習中文卻放棄的西方人。

Out of sheer frustration I started reaching out to people like Daniel Tedesco (see his answer) and others for advice.  I took Benny Lewis ("fluent in 3 months") to dinner and got his advice.  I was shocked at the wide range of opinions.  Some of the advice was helpful, some (like "just get a Chinese girlfriend") was useless to happily married me.  

出于極度的沮喪,我開始向Daniel Tedesco等人尋求建議。我請Benny Lewis(在3個月內中文達到流利程度)去吃晚飯,聽取了他的建議。各種各樣的觀點令我感到震驚,其中有些建議很有用,而有些(比如“找個中國女朋友”)則對我的幸福婚姻毫無幫助。

I met a lot of Westerners who started working when the first arrived in China, took few hours each week of lessons, and never really got to the point where they could use Chinese as well as I can now.  I commonly hear the regret, "I wish I had first focused on Chinese when I arrived."

我遇到了很多西方人,他們一到中國就開始工作,每周只上幾個小時的課,所以他們從來沒有能像我現在這樣使用中文。我經常聽到這樣的遺憾:“我真希望我剛來的時候先把注意力放在學習中文上。”

Every Westerner I met who was "fluent" (1) spent at least several months studying Chinese full time, and (2) spent massive amounts of time speaking 1-1 with native Chinese people.

我遇到的每一個中文“流利”的西方人都(1)至少花了幾個月的時間全職學習中文,(2)花費大量時間與中國人進行一對一的交談。

Of course this doesn't mean that software products, classrooms, and studying part time don't help - I just didn't meet anyone who had used them successfully. 

當然,這并不意味著軟件、課堂和業余學習沒有幫助——我只是沒有遇到任何成功地使用過它們的人。

So in early June I decided to give myself a 3-month deadline of getting to basic efficiency or give up.  I stopped taking meetings in Beijing, stopped work on any other projects, and dedicated myself full time, 7 days a week to learning Chinese.  

所以在6月初,我決定給自己3個月的期限,要么達到基本的能力,要么放棄。我不再參加北京的會議,不再做任何其他項目,而是全身心地、每周7天投入到中文的學習中。

I increased my 1-1 time with Chinese teachers from ~8 hours/week to ~25.  I found two great teachers(one from a school in Beijing http://www.livethelanguage.cn/, one referred by another American expat) and worked with them 1-1 for 3-6 hours per day, 7 days/week.  These 3-hour sessions were exhausting at times.

我和中文老師一對一相處的時間從每周8小時增加到25小時。我和兩位優秀的教師一起進行每周7天、每天3-6小時的一對一學習。這三個小時的課程有時會讓人精疲力盡。

Outside of class I got stacks of spoken Chinese textbooks with MP3 recorders.  I spent hour after hour listening to MP3s, reading dialogs, and asking my teachers for help whenever I didn't understand a word or grammar.  Whenever I could listed to the MP3 at full speed and read and understand the entire dialog I would move on, never going back, always moving on to the next dialog.  

課下,我收到了一堆的帶有MP3錄音的中文口語課本。我一小時又一小時地聽MP3,閱讀對話,每當我不懂某個單詞或語法的時候就向老師求助。只要我能以最快的速度列出MP3中的所有對話,閱讀并理解他們,我就會繼續前進,永不回頭,繼續學習下一個對話。

No flashcards, no textbook exercises (unless part of speaking with my teachers).  

不用抽認卡,不做課本練習(除非和老師交談)。

I started watching episodes of 喜羊羊與灰太狼 per Daniel's advice.  I could not (and still can't) follow the dialog at full speed, so my teacher would transcribe the dialog for me and I would study it as well.  With my teacher I would explain the entire episode to her, ask questions, and attempt to use the new words and grammar from the episode.  When I could watch it at full speed and understand everything I would move on.  Sometimes I would have to see the same word multiple times before getting it.

我開始看《喜羊羊與灰太狼》。我不能(現在仍然不能)完全聽懂這個對話,所以我的老師會為我抄錄對話,然后我去學習它。我會向我的老師解釋整集劇情,問問題,并嘗試使用這集里的新單詞和語法。當我能全速觀看并理解一切時,我會繼續下一集。有時候,同一個單詞我得看好幾遍才會明白。

Since I never hand write English, I decided not to learn how to write Hanzi characters except 一 、二、三 :-).  But I did type Hanzi everyday, typing out homework assignments, creating my own fictional dialogs, and writing stories.  Every day I read them with my teacher, get errors corrected, and talk about them. 

因為我從不手寫英文,所以我決定不去學習如何手寫除了一、二、三以外的漢字。但我每天都會打漢字,打作業,創造自己的虛擬對話,寫故事。每天我會和我的老師一起閱讀,糾正錯誤,然后討論它們。

I looked for every daily life opportunity to speak Chinese.  Before going to get a haircut/buy something/to a restaurant I would write out fictional dialogs about what I planned to do, then I would read and discuss them with my teachers.  Then I would go out and use the language in the wild, making mistakes and stumbling through it.  

在日常生活中,我會尋找每一個說中文的機會。在去理發/買東西/去餐館之前,我會寫一些關于我計劃做什么的虛擬對話,然后我會閱讀它們并與我的老師進行討論。最后我就會走出去,在生活中使用這門語言,犯錯誤,再磕磕絆絆地克服它。

I tried (not always successfully) to not use English.  If I took an evening off and watched an English TV program or spoke English with friends I found the next day's class particularly tough.  In retrospect, my episodes of progress came when I went into Chinese and never came out for long stretches of time.  But it has been very hard and many times I just wanted to quit.

我試著(不總會成功)不使用英語。如果我有一晚上沒學習中文,而是看了一檔英語電視節目,或者和朋友們說英語,我會發現第二天的課特別難。回想起來,當我開始學中文,并且長時間沉浸其中的時候,我才有了進步。但這段時間真的很艱難,很多時候我只想離開。

And...it worked.  By the end August, my 3 month deadline, I was able to carry out basic life conversations.  

終于……我的努力有了回報。到8月底,也就是我三個月期限的最后階段,我已經能夠進行基本的生活對話了。

I still plan on working 1-1 with teachers a few hours a day, reading Chinese, and writing at every opportunity.  

我仍然計劃每天花幾個小時和老師們一對一地交流,閱讀中文,抓住每一個機會進行寫作。

In retrospect, my advice is…

現在回想起來,我的建議是……

1.  If life allows it, dedicate 6 months, full time, 24x7 to studying and using Chinese when you arrive in China.  There is so much basic life stuff to organize when you get hear anyway and you can use your time with teachers or students to learn how to use the bank, get a haircut, etc.

1. 如果生活允許,當你來到中國的時候,請花6個月的時間,一天24小時、一周七天地去學習和使用中文。無論你聽到什么,你都有很多基本的生活用語要整理,你可以利用和老師或學生在一起的時間學習如何在銀行辦理業務、理發等等。

2.  Find a way to spend 20-30 hours/week in one-on-one dialog with native speakers.  Professional teachers are the best if you can afford it ($5-$20 USD/hour) but you can also get students and tutors if necessary.  

2.想辦法每周花20-30個小時和母語人士進行一對一的對話。如果你能負擔得起(每小時5- 20美元)費用,最好請專業教師,但如果無法負擔,你也可以請學生和導師。

3.  Be patient, be determined.  It is so hard but it gets better.

3.要有耐心,要有決心。雖然過程會很艱難,但最終總會變好。
 
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