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Trump Administration Considered Tariffs on Australia

特朗普政府曾考慮對澳大利亞加征關稅



Shipping containers at the Port of Melbourne in Australia. Australia was the only country to be fully exempted from the start from steel and aluminum tariffs that President Trump imposed last year.CreditCreditDavid Crosling/EPA, via Shutterstock

(澳大利亞墨爾本港口的集裝箱。澳大利亞是唯一一個被完全豁免特朗普總統去年加征的鋼鐵和鋁關稅的國家。)

新聞:
June 2, 2019
WASHINGTON — The Trump administration considered imposing tariffs on imports from Australia last week, but decided against the move amid fierce opposition from military officials and the State Department, according to several people familiar with the discussions.

2019年6月2日,華盛頓報道——據幾名知情人士透露,特朗普政府上周曾考慮對來自澳大利亞的進口商品加征關稅,但在軍方官員和美國國務院的強烈反對下,遂決定不加征關稅。

Some of President Trump’s top trade advisers had urged the tariffs as a response to a surge of Australian aluminum flowing onto the American market over the past year. But officials at the Defense and State Departments told Mr. Trump the move would alienate a top ally and could come at significant cost to the United States.

特朗普總統的一些高級貿易顧問敦促對澳加征關稅,以作為對過去一年流入美國市場的澳大利亞鋁產品數量激增的回應。但國防部和國務院官員告訴特朗普,此舉將疏遠美國的最親密盟友之一,并可能會讓美國付出重大代價。

The administration ultimately agreed not to take any action, at least temporarily.

特朗普政府最終同意不采取任何行動,至少現在暫時不采取行動。



The latest example came Thursday, when Mr. Trump abruptly announced that he would also levy tariffs on Mexico to try to pressure that country to stem the flow of migrants across the United States’ southern border. The move has sent foreign officials and lawmakers on Capitol Hill scrambling to head off tariffs that could damage Mexican and American businesses and threaten to derail a newly negotiated North American trade deal.

最新的案例發生在周四——特朗普突然宣布,他還將對墨西哥加征關稅,以試圖向該國施壓,阻止移民越過美國南部邊境。此舉已促使外交官員和國會議員們忙于阻止這一可能損害墨西哥和美國企業,并有可能破壞新談判達成的北美貿易協定的關稅。

The tariffs on Australia would have hit imports of aluminum, although measures that would have applied to other products had been discussed as well. Shipments of Australian aluminum to the United States have surged since last year, when Australia became one of the few countries not to face metal tariffs.

對澳大利亞加征關稅將打擊鋁的進口,然而該措施也能應用于早前已經討論過的其他產品。自去年澳大利亞成為少數幾個不被征收金屬關稅的國家之一以來,該國向美國出口的鋁大幅增加。

Mr. Trump imposed a 25 percent tariff on imported steel and a 10 percent tariff on imported aluminum from many countries last year. The move was an effort to shield American producers from low-priced imports, which the administration said were a threat to the domestic industrial base and therefore national security.

去年,特朗普對從許多國家進口的鋼材征收了25%的關稅,鋁征收了10%的關稅。此舉是為了保護美國國內生產商免受低價進口產品的沖擊——特朗普政府稱,低價進口鋼鋁對美國國內產業基礎構成威脅,進而威脅到了國家安全。

Some countries, like Brazil, Argentina and South Korea, won temporary exemptions on some of their imports, but ultimately agreed to limits on how much metal they could ship to the United States. But Australia’s full exemption appears to have been the work of Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, who reached a handshake deal with Mr. Trump in 2017 to avoid the tariffs. In August 2018, Mr. Turnbull lost the confidence of his party and was ousted from office.

巴西、阿根廷和韓國等一些國家獲得了部分進口產品的臨時豁免,但最終也同意了限制向美國出口的金屬產品數量。但澳大利亞的完全豁免似乎成了總理馬爾科姆·特恩布爾的功勞。特恩布爾在2017年與特朗普達成了一項避免征收關稅的“握手協議”。而在2018年8月,特恩布爾失去了黨內的信任,被趕下臺。

Exempting Australia from tariffs effectively allowed Australian producers to sell cheaper metals to the United States than their competitors from Europe, North America and Asia. Aluminum imports from Australia rose by 45 percent from 2017 to 2018. They are up even more, by 350 percent, for the first three months of 2019, compared with the same period in 2018.

對澳大利亞豁免關稅有效地使得澳大利亞生產商能夠向美國出售比歐洲、北美和亞洲的競爭對手更便宜的金屬產品。從2017年至2018年,美國從澳大利亞進口的鋁增加了45%。與2018年同期相比,2019年前三個月的增幅甚至更大,達到了350%。

But Australia remains a relatively small supplier of aluminum to the United States, accounting for about 6 percent of total imports so far this year, according to the United States Geological Survey.

但美國地質調查局的數據顯示,澳大利亞對美國的鋁供應占比仍然相對較小,只占今年目前進口總量的6%左右。

Robert Lighthizer, the United States trade representative, and Peter Navarro, the director of the White House Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy, were among the backers of tariffs on Australia. But other senior administration officials, who have cultivated ties to Australia, favor prioritizing other elements of the relationship.

美國貿易代表羅伯特·萊特希澤和白宮貿易與制造業政策辦公室主任彼得·納瓦羅是對澳大利亞加征關稅措施的支持者之二。但其他為發展與澳大利亞關系出過力的高級政府官員們則傾向于優先考慮兩國關系的其他因素。

For one thing, Australia has emerged as an important ally — perhaps the most critical one — in helping Washington constrain China’s influence in the Asia-Pacific region. Australian officials have banned the Chinese company Huawei from the country’s online networks, and have investigated the Chinese Communist Party’s influence and interference in Australia. Washington is also relying on Canberra to compete with the Chinese for political clout in the Pacific islands.

一方面,澳大利亞已經成為美國一個重要的盟友——或許還是最關鍵的盟友——能幫助華盛頓限制中國在亞太地區的影響力。澳大利亞官員禁止中國公司華為進入澳大利亞的網絡,并調查了TG對澳大利亞的影響和干預。華盛頓也依賴堪培拉與中國爭奪太平洋島嶼的政治影響力。



Instead of tariffs, Canada and Mexico agreed to set up a system for monitoring and enforcement for import surges into the United States. Under the agreement, the United States can reimpose tariffs on individual exports of 25 percent for steel and 10 percent for aluminum in the case of such surges.

(在之前的舊版協議上)加拿大和墨西哥同意建立一套監測和執行(防止)美國進口激增的機制,而不是采用加征關稅的手段。而根據新協議,在上述進口激增的情況下,美國可以單獨對出口的鋼鐵和鋁分別征收25%和10%的關稅。